Gas Chromatography

Chromatography is the name of a process used to divide chemical substances that depends on different partitioning occurences between a stationary phase and a flowing mobile phase for detaching elements in a mix.

The sample is transferred by a stream of moving gas through a tube that holds evenly separated solid, or could be coated with a liquid film. Gas chromatography is one of the most critical tools in chemistry because of its ease, highly effective nature, and sensitivity. It is most commonly utilized to carry out qualitative and quantitative analysis of mixtures, to purify compounds, and to uncover certain thermochemical constants.

Gas chromatography is additionally widely employed in the automatic monitoring of industrial processes. Take, for example, gas streams that are often analyzed and adjusted with manual or automatic responses to counteract undesirable differences.

There are a number of routine analyses that are conducted quickly in environmental and related fields. For instance, there are a plethora of countries with certain monitor points that serve the purpose of continuously assessing emission levels of gases such as carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, and nitrogen dioxides. Additionally, gas chromatography can be used in analyzing pharmaceutical products.

The technique for gas chromatography starts with introducing the test mixture into a stream of inert gas, usually a gas that serves as a carrier gas such as argon or helium. Samples in liquid form are first vaporized before being injected into the stream of carrier gases. Later, the gas stream transfers through the packed column that contains elements of the sample moving at speeds that are determined by the level of interaction between each constituent with the stationary nonvolatile phase. Those parts that have a more significant interaction with the stationary phase are restricted more and thus separate from those with a lesser interaction. As these components begin to be wiped out of the column with a solvent, they can be numbered by a detector and/or gathered for further analysis.

There are two main types of gas chromatography: gas-solid chromatography (GSC) and gas-liquid chromatography (GLC). The first, gas-solid chromatography, is relevant to the solid stationary phase, during which retention of analytes occurs as a result of physical adsorption. Gas-liquid chromatography is typically utilized when separating ions that can be dissolved in a solvent. If it makes contact with a second solid or liquid phase, the different solutes in the sample solution will interact with the other phase to certain degrees that vary based on differences in adsorption, exchange of ions, partitioning or size. These differences give the mixture components the ability to separate from each other when they use these difference to modify their transit times of the solutes through a column.

Gas Chromatography with Carrier Gases

When selecting a carrier gas, the selection depends on the sort of detector being employed and the elements that are being determined. Carrier gases used in chromatographs should be high-purity and chemically inert towards the sample. In order to eliminate water or other impurities, the carrier gas system may have a molecular sieve.

The most prevalent injection systems used to introduce gas samples are the gas sampling valve and injection via syringe. Both liquid and gas samples are able to be injected with a syringe. When in its most simple form, the sample is first injected into and vaporized in a heated chamber, then transferred to the column. When packed columns are employed, the first section of the column is usually used as an injection chamber and warmed to a proper temperature separately. With capillary columns a small portionvof the vaporized sample is transported to the column from a separate injection chamber; this is called split-injection. This process is utilized when trying to keep the sample volume from overloading the column.

A process referred to as on-column injection can be employed for capillary gas chromatography when trace amounts could be found in the sample. In on-column injection, the liquid sample injected with a syringe directly into the column. Later, the solvent has the ability to evaporate and a concentration of the sample components occurs. In gas samples, the concentration is created by a process known as cryo focusing. In this process, the sample components are concentrated and separated from the matrix by condensation in a cold-trap prior to the chromatography process.

Finally, there is also a method called loop-injection, and it is often used in process control where liquid or gas samples flow consistently through the sample loop. The sample loop is filled with a syringe or an automatic pump in an off-line position. After that, the sample is transported from the loop to the column by the mobile phase, sometimes having a concentration step.

Whether you’re searching for specialty gases to be utilized in gas chromatography, or any other industry that utilizes specialty gases, PurityPlus has a wide variety of specialty gas products to meet your need. We have a large selection of specialty gases and specialty gas equipment, along with the resources and experts on hand to assist you with any questions or needs. For further information, browse our online catalog or via email at or at (804) 644-4521.